MacBain's Dictionary - Section 6
- effect, use, Irish
boil, *bol, *bel: Pre-Celt. bhel, bhol; Greek
- total, entirely; another form of
baileach. Early Irish has
- a bullace or sloe (
Sh.); from Middle English bolaster =
bullace-tree, from bolace, now bullace.
- a loaf, Irish builín; from
Old French boulange, ball-shaped
loaf (?), which Diez suggests as the basis of French boulanger,
- a blow, so Irish,
Early Irish bulle, buille = bollia =
bus-liâ + bhud-s-liâ;
beat, as in buail, q.v.
Stokes gives the stem as
*boldja, allied to Lithuanian béldz@?iu, belsti, give a blow, baldas, a
beetle; German poltern.
- centre, Irish boilsceán,
Middle Irish bolscén, middle, midriff =
balg, bolg, belly.
- belong to, Irish beanaim. The Irish is from the verb
touch; the Gaelic, which has the idea of relationship or origin
(Cha bhuin e dhomh: he is not related to me), seems to
- a cataract, tide, Irish buinne, a spout, tap,
Early Irish buinne,
wave, rush of water: Gaelic buinneach, flux, diarrh@oea, so Irish;
Also puinne (Suth.) (W.Ross).
- a twig, sprout, Irish buinneán,
bus, as in English bush, boosky, German busch, etc.
- a footman, so Irish; from
bonn, sole of the foot.
- roar, bellow (as a bull), Irish búireadh, roaring; Early Irish
búraim; *bû-ro-, Indo-European root
@gevo, @gû, cry;
Lithuanian gauju, howl; Sanskrit
gu, cry. Strachan gives as Gaelic stem
bucro-, root buq as in Latin buccina, horn,
Sanskrit bukka@-ras, lion's roar, Norwg. bura, to bellow, Shet.
- a free man, burgess, Irish buirgéiseach; from the English
- language of folly and ridicule; from the Romance
burla, to jest, etc.
- a deluge of rain; a rousing fire (Heb.):
- a bhshel, Irish buiseul; from English bushel.
- bashful (Badenoch): a form of bòidich?
- a witch, so Irish; from English witch; "buidseach agus
- pot hook; from the Scottish bools, a pot hook in two parts or
Middle English bool, a pail handle, round part of a key,
German bügel, arc: from Teutonic beugan, bend, English bow.
- bungler; from Scottish bummeler, from bummil, bungle,
English bumble; of onomatopoetic origin (Murray). Cf. German
bummler, a lounger.
- root, stock, bottom, Irish,
Early Irish bun, Welsh bon, stem, trunk,
Old Welsh boned; Armen. bun; N.Persian bun, Zend buna- (Bugge).
Rhys has suggested a comnection with German bühne, a stage,
boards. Anglo-Saxon bune, "stalk, reed", may be allied. It cannot
be connected with
bonn, for the stem there is bhuadh-no-, root
bhudh. The ultimate root of bun, in any case, is simply bhu,
bhû, grow, swell,
@Gfu@nlon,a tribe, English
boil (n.), German
bheule, a swelling, Sanskrit bhumis, earth; bhû, grow, is identical
with bhu, be.
- coarse tow, refuse of flax, so Irish; from
- foundation, Irish bunáit:
- a hussy (Dial.); from Scottish bungy, pettish.
- steadiness, bunntam, bunntamas, solidity, shrewdness;
bun, foundation. Cf. Irish buntomhas, well founded
- a twig, so Irish,
Early Irish bunsach;
- a sudden rush; from
- potato, Irish potáta, fataidhe; from the English. It contains
a piece of folk-etymologising in the syllable bun-, root.
- turning up of the earth, digging; from the Scottish bourie,
English burrow. The Scottish bourach, enclosure, cluster, knoll,
heap, etc., is the English bower.
- a purge, , Purgatory;
See purgaid, Purgadoir.
- a flood, rush of water (Arg.);
- wormwood; from the English Middle Irish in uormoint.
- water; from Scottish burn, water, spring-water, English bourne,
burn, a stream, Teutonic brunnon-, a spring, Norse brunnr, well,
- ablockhead, Irish búrraidh; from Scottish burrio (1535), French
bourrieau, Latin burræ, nonsense, English burlesque, etc.
- a howl, lamentation, so Irish; for the root, which is here
See bùir. Cf. bururus, however.
- a caterpillar:
- as in burr'caid, clumsy person, burr'ghlas, a torrent of
rage, etc, seems from
++borr, great, excessive, q.v. burr'sgadh,
a burst of passion, may be from English borasco, squall of wind.
- mockery; from Scottish bourd,
Middle English bourd, jest, French bourde,
- infant lisping, warbling, purling; cf. English
purr and purl
(Skeat). Evidently onomatopoetic.
- a mouth, kiss, Irish,
Middle Irish bus, *bussu-; Pre-Celt. @guss-; Teutonic
kuss, German küssen, kiss, English kiss (Kluge).
Lit buczúti, kiss; others give buc-sa, allied to Latin bucca,
- dressing; from the Scottish, English busk.
- a bustle (M`D.); formed from
English busy; cf. Anglo-Saxon
- puffing, blowing (Heb.); from
- a push;
- oar pin;
- a shop; from the English booth,
Norse búð, shop, root bhu, be.
- thump, thrash, bang; from the root bhud, beat
- long straw for thatch; cf. sputhainn, straw not
threshed, but seedless (Arg.), which seems from
- a mess:
cia, who, what, q.v.
- where, Irish cá, how, where, who;
a by-form to
- a gap, indentation, mouth, Irish cab, mouth, head, gap, cabach,
babbling, indented. The word is borrowed from two English
words - gap and
gab (Middle English gabben, chatter); Gaelic has also
gab of the Scottish Hence cabach, gap-toothed.
- a cheese; Scottish cabback, kebbock. The latter form (kebbock)
is probably from a Gaelic
ceapag, cepag, obsolete in Gaelic in the sense
of "a cheese", but still used for the thick wooden wheel of
wheel-barrows; it is from Gaelic ceap.
Scottish cabback is a side form
of kebbock, and it seems to have been re-borrowed into Gaelic as
The real Gaelic word for "a cheese" is now mulachag.
- cabbage, Irish gabáisde; from the English
- a cable, Irish cabla; from English cable, which, through French,
comes from Latin capulum.
- a rafter, caber, deer's horn, Irish cabar, Welsh ceibr, rafters,
Old Breton cepriou, beams; from a Medieval Latin *caprio, a rafter,
capro, caprones (which exists as a genuine 8th century word),
French chevron, rafter. caprio is from caper, goat; Latin capreoli,
goat-lets, was used for two beams meeting to support something,
- a bit, curb, Welsh cebystr, Breton kabestr; from Latin
capistrum, halter, "head-holder", from caput.
- a fleet, Irish
Early Irish coblach; *cob-lach;
from kub, *qu@g, curve, root of Latin cymba, boat,
boat, cup, especially Latin cybaea, a transport (*kubaía.
- ship's tackle, Irish cábhluighe; cf.
cabhlach and English
- sowens, flummery, Irish cáthbhruith;
from cáth and
- causeway, Irish cabhsa; from English causey, causeway, from
Old French caucie, from Latin calciata (via).
- dry, snug; from Scottish cosie, colsie, English cosy, whose
origin is unknown.
- an issue, drain in the body (M`D., who, as cautair,
explains it as "an issue or cauter"); from English cauter.
- a conical basket for catching fish; from Middle English cawell,
a fish basket, still used in Cornwall, Anglo-Saxon cawl. Cf. Breton
Old Breton cauell, basket, cradle; from Latin
cauuella, a vat, etc. (Loth, Ernault).
- turmoil, hindrance, trouble (Wh.):
- capon (M`D.), Irish cabún; from English capon.
- excrement, so Irish,
Early Irish cacc, Cornish caugh, Breton kac'k, *kakko-;
@Gkákkc; Sanskrit çáka, g. çaknás.
- the rest, others, Irish,
Old Irish cách, quivis, Welsh pawb, all, Breton pep,
*qáqe; root qo@-, qo, qe
- vexation, Irish cacht, distress, prioner,
Early Irish cachtaim, I
capture, Welsh caeth, slave, confined: *kapto-, caught; Latin
capio, captus; Gothic haban, English have.
Arms.), cachaleith (
H.S.D.), a gate; co-cliath, "co-hurdle";
cleath, hurdle, wattle.
(C.S.). It has also been explained as cadha-chliath, "hurdle-pass".
Carmichael gives alternate cliath-na-cadha.
- tartan cloth, hose tartan, Manx cadee, cotton; English
caddow (16th cent.), an Irish quilt or cloak; doubtless from
English caddis, worsted, crewel work, etc., French cadis, woolen
See also catas.
- sleep, Irish codladh,
Old Irish cotlud, vb. contulim: *con-tul-, root
tol; Church Slavonic toliti, appease, placare, Lithuanian tilas,
The root tol, tel, appears in
tràth, gentle, Latin tolerare,
- cotton (Sh.); from English cotton. Properly codan, which is
the usual dialect form.
See cotan. For Irish cadás, cotton,
- a pass, narrow pass, entry; cf. Irish caoi, way, road,
cái, which Stokes, however, refers to the root ci as in Latin
@Gkíw, go, a derivation which does not suit the
Gaelic phonetically. cae (Meyer).
- jackdaw, Irish cabhóg,
caog; *ca-óg, the
ca, caw; on onomatopoetic origin. Cf. English caw;
also chough, from a West Teutonic kâwa-.
- a wedge (M`A. for Skye):
- wild goose, barnacle goose, so Irish; cf. English caw, for possibly
the name is onomatopoetic. Corm. (B)
- the cud-weed (Sh.
gives cad-luibh, and O'Br.), Irish
cadh-luibh; from Middle English code, a cud.
M`A. omits the word;
it is clearly Irish. The Gaelic is cnàmh lus,
which is its Latin
name of gnaphalium in folk etymology.
- a mould for casting bullets; from Scottish cawmys, calmes
(16th century), caums, English
- a hearth, Irish cagailt, raking of the fire (O'R.):
- a whisper, Irish cogar,
Middle Irish coccur; cechras, qui canet,
cairche, sound; root kar, of Latin carmet,
- darling: *con-car-; root
car, dear, as in
- something ground to pulp or dust (M`D.):
- chewing, Irish cognadh,
Middle Irish cocnum,
Old Irish cocnom:
- a spade, turf cutter, Irish coibe, cuibe
Fol.), Welsh caib,
Old Cornish cep.
- a chapel
(M`D.); from Latin capella.
The Gaelic really is
- giggling, laughing:
- a chapter, Irish caibidil,
Early Irish caiptel, Welsh
cabidwl; from Latin capitulum, whence
Old French chapitre, English
- cherish, so Irish
- fellowship, affection, vicinity, so Irish,
Middle Irish caidrebh,
Celtiberian Contrebia: *con-treb-;
- conversation, claque (Arg.); teaze (Perth):
- a couple (of animals), coupling: *con-ceann; from
- a winding pass through rocks and brushwood, a rough
mountain pass (Dial. = cadha-éiginn).
- scrimmage (M`D.):
- condition, vigour, appetite, anything (càileigin),
Irish cáil, Welsh
cael, to have, get, enjoy, *kapli-, *kapelo-: root qap; Latin
capio, English have.
- a partition wall (of wattle or clay, etc.);
from calbh, q.v.
- chalk, Irish,
Early Irish cailc, Welsh calch; from Latin calx, calcis,
whence also English chalk.
- girl, wench, Irish caile, hussy,
Early Irish caile; cf. Breton plac'h, girl;
@Gpallakc/, concubine, Latin pellex. Usually caileag, girl.
- husks, Irish cáithleach: cáith-lach; s
ee càth. From
comes also càilean, a husk.
- philosopher, star-gazer; from the English calender, a
mendicant dervish, from Persian qalander.
- snot, rheum (
M`F., cailidhir in
this into cailidéar.
- chalice, Irish cailís; from Latin calix, cup, English chalice.
- kails, ninepins (M`D.); from English kails,
from keyle, a peg, German kegel, a cane, ninepin.
- old wife, nun, so Irish,
Old Irish caillech, "veiled one"; from
caille, veil, which is from the Latin pallium, cloak, English pall.
- eunuch, so Irish; from caill, lose.
- a mote, Irish cáim, a stain, blemish; from càm.
- saving (Carm.):
- restraining (Carm.).
- a fold:
- camlet; from the English
- a tax, a tribute, Irish cáin,
Early Irish cáin, statute, law: *kap-ni-,
root qap, as in
càil? Stokes refers it to the root kâs, order,
Sanskrit çâs (do.), Latin castigare, castus, Gothic hazjan, praise.
Hence Scottish cain.
- white: from Latin ca@-nus.
- scold, revile, Irish cáin,
Middle Irish cáined, scolding: *kag-niô or
@Gkagházw, Latin cachinnus;
Old High German huohôn, mock; Sanskrit kakhati, laugh.
- hemp, Irish cnáib,
Middle Breton canap; from Latin cannabis, allied to
- cinnamon; from Scottish and obsolete English cannel, canel,
Greek canelle, from Latin canella, dim. of
- a fine (Heb.), Irish caingean, a rule, case, compact, etc.:
- Pentecost, Irish cingcis,
Early Irish Cingcigais; from the Latin
quinquagesima (dies, 50th day from the Passover).
- a mote:
- a hamper (Skye):
- speech, Irish caint;
from can, say, q.v. Stokes gives the
stem as *kan(s)ti, root kans, Skr çasti, prise, from çams,
speak, Latin censeo.
- a captain, Irish,
Middle Irish caiptín; from Middle English capitain,
Old French capitaine, Latin capitaneus, caput, head.
- a blaze, sea foam, etc.;
See rather caoir.
- the gum, Irish cáir (cairib, Fol.):
- a peat moss, dry part of the peat moss (Dial.); from English
carr, boggy ground, Norse kjarr, brushwood.
- the bent ridge of a cart saddle srathair. Shaw gives
further the meanings "plank, ship, fusec (cairb a' ghunna)
(Rob), chariot"; Irish corb, coach. The word is the primary
stem from which
carbad, chariot, springs;
See carbad. As
"fusee" or "fisil", i.e., "musket", it seems a curtailed form
- a carcase, carrion; also cairb (Dial.); allied to corpus?
- carriage, tenants' rent service; from Middle English cariage,
in all senses (Cf. the charter terms - "Areage and cariage
and all due service"), now carriage.
- a carabine; from the English
- a toothless person (Sh.); from
++cairb a jaw, gum,
See cairb above.
- flesh, person:
- a delay, respite, Irish cáirde; cf.
Old Irish cairde, pactum. A
special legal use of a word which originally means "friendship".
- friendship, so Irish,
Old Irish cairdes; from
- a prating girl (Sh., who gives caireog); probably from
càir, gum: "having jaw".
- a hart or stag, Irish cáirrfhiadh: *carbh-fhiadh. For
*carbh, a deer; cf. Welsh carw, hart, stag, Cornish caruu, Breton caru;
- mend, Irish cóirighim,
Early Irish córaigim, arrange, from
Cf. cairim, sutor, Z. 775.
- a weir, Irish cora,
Middle Irish coraidh for cora, g. corad, Welsh
Old Welsh and
Old Breton coret, from Celtic korjô, I set, put.
- sea moss, Irish moss, Eng carrageen, so named from
Carragheen (Waterford), in Ireland. This place name is a
- corpse, carcase; founded on Middle English cors, Scottish corrssys (pl.
in Blind Harry), now corse.
- wild liquorice;
- an egg-shell:
- bark (of a tree), Irish cairt; Latin cortex; root qert, cut, Lithuanian
kertù, cut, English rend.
- a cart, so Irish, Welsh cart; from the English cart.
- a card, so Irish; Gaelic is from Scottish carte, which is direct from
the French carte. The English modifies the latter form into card.
The are all from Latin charta, paper. Early Irish
- cleanse, Irish cartaighim,
Early Irish cartaim, Welsh carthu, purge,
kar-to-. The root idea is a "clearing out"; the root ker, kar,
separate, is allied to sker in
ascart, and especially in
- a quarter; from Late Latin quartellus, Norse kvartill,
Latin quartus, fourth.
- foot gear (shoes or boots), Irish coisbheart;
- listen, Irish coisteacht, listening,
Early Irish coistim,
Old Irish coitsea,
éisd, listen, q.v.
O'R. gives the
modern Irish cóisdeacht with
o long, which would seem the
most natural result from co-éisd.
- chese, Irish,
Early Irish cáise, Welsh caws, Breton kaouz; from Latin
ca@-seus, whence English cheese.
- bulwark, castle, Irish caiseal,
Early Irish caisel, caissle; from Latin
- anything curled, etc.; from cas, curled, q.v.
- check, stop, Irish coisgim,
Old Irish cosc, castigare,
Welsh cosp, *kon-sqo-,
*seqô, I say; Latin inseque;
English say, German sagen.
- Easter, Irish Cáisg,
Old Irish cásc, Welsh pasc; from Latin pascha,
- a bier, bed of blood,
Middle Irish cosair chró, bed of blood -
to denote a violent death,
Early Irish cosair, bed. the expression
appears in the Ossianic Ballads, and folk-etymology is
responsible for making
Gaelic casair into caisil, bulwark. The
word cosair has been explained as co-ster-, root ster, strew,
Latin sternere, English strew.
- a ford, footpath; from cas-lach, rather than cas-slighe,
- stir up, caisleachadh, shaking up, etc.; from
- an alarm (of battle), signal, march tune. The corresponding
Irish is caismirt, alarm, battle,
Middle Irish caismert,
- a castle,
Middle Irish castél,
Early Irish castíall; from Latin castellum,
whence English castle.
- a rush mat for measuring corn, Irish cáiteach, winnowing
sheet; from càite, winnowed, from
- a small bit (H.S.D.),
a basket for trouts (M`A. for
Islands), basket (Sh.),
a place to hold barley in (M`L.). For
the first sense, cf. Welsh
cat, a piece, Scottish
cat, a rag. In Irish
Latin the trout was called catus (Giraldus).
- scraped linen, applied for the stoppage of wounds
from Scottish caddis, lint for wounds,
Middle English cadas, caddis, cotton
wool, floss silk for padding, from
Old French cadas.
See Gaelic catas.
caiteas = sawdust, scrapings (M`D.).
- nap of cloth, shag, Irish caitín, catkin of the osier, little
cat. The English words caddis, catkin, and cotton seem to be
mixed up as the basis of the Gaelic and Irish words. Cf. Welsh ceden,
- spend, cast, Irish,
Old Irish caithim, *katjô, I consume, castaway;
Sanskrit çâtayati, sever, cast down,
destroy, çât-ana, causing to
fall, wearing out, root çt. Allied to the root of
- just, right, Irish caithear (Lh.), caithfidh, it behoves,
Middle Irish caithfid; from
caith, doubtless (
- shout of joy, triumph, Irish caithréim; from
réim, a shout,
Early Irish rém. This last word Strachan
refers to the root req (*rec-m or *rec-s-m), Church Slavonic reka@?, speak,
- kail, cabbage, Irish cál, Welsh cawl, Cornish caul, Breton kaol; from Latin
caulis, a stalk, whence likewise English cole (colewort) and Scottish
- a harbour, Irish caladh,
Middle Irish calad. It is usual to
correlate this with It.
cala, French cale, bay, cove (Diez, Thurneysen,
Windisch), and Stokes even says the Gaelic and Irish words
are borrowed from a Romance *calatum, It. calata,
cale, cove. More probably the Celtic root is qel, qal, hide, as
in English hollow,
Middle English holh, hollow, cave, also English hole,
possibly. the root of cladh, has also been suggested.
- calendar, Irish calaindéir; from Middle English kalendar,
through French from Latin calendarium, an account-book, from
calendæ, the Calends or first of the month.
- a dove; the common form of the literary
- spinning of wool; seemingly founded on Latin colus,
- head, pate, bald, so Irish,
Early Irish calb; from Latin calva,
scalp, calvus, bald. H.S.D. gives as a meaning "promontory",
and instances "Aoineadh a' Chailbh Mhuilich", which surely
must be the Calf of Mull; and Calf is a common name for
such subsidiary isles - from Norse kálfr, English calf. Cognate
with Latin calva, calvaria (St. Lec.).
- a shoot, osier, twig, Irish colbha, plant stalk, sceptre, hazel
Early Irish colba, wand;
- gushing of water or blood (H.S.D.) from
- greedy of food (Suth.); from
- drive, ram, caulk, Irish calcaim; from Latin calco, calx, the heel,
- sharp, pointed (
- awn, beard of corn, bristles, Irish calg,
Old Welsh colginn, aristam, Welsh cola, beard of corn, sting,
caly, penis, Breton calc'h (do.), kalgo-, *kolgo-;
stunted; Gothic halks, poor; further is Latin cellere, hit, culter,
knife; etc. The main root is qel, qlâ, hit, break;
The Caledonian hero Calgocos derives
his name hence. Hence calg-dhìreach, direct, "sword-straight"
to a place.
- loss, Irish caill,
Early Irish coll, Welsh coll, Cornish colled, jactura,
coll, *koldo-; English halt, Gothic halts,
Old High German halz, lame; root
qel, as in calg.
- tame, callaidh (M`A.,
also Sh., who gives the
meaning "active" to the last form); cf. Welsh
call, wise; from
- the black guillemot, diver; compare English quail,
- a partition, fence; the same as tallaid, q.v.?
- a wig, cap (M`F.);
from English calott, skull-cap.
- a noise, Irish callán, callóich; from English