MacBain's Dictionary - Section 7
- hazel, Irish Early Irish coll, Welsh collen, Cornish coll-widen. Middle Breton
quel-vezenn, *koslo-; Latin corylus; Norse hasl, English hazel.
- New Year's Day, Irish calláin, Calends, or first day of the
Early Irish callaind, the Calends, particularly the first
Jan., Welsh calan, Calends; from Latin calendæ (English Calends).
- a pillar (M`A.), Irish columhan,
colbh; from Latin columna, etc.
- brave, Irish,
Early Irish calma. Cf. Welsh celf, skill, art,
Old Breton celmed, efficax. The root cal is to be
compared with that in German held, hero, *haleth or *calet. The
Indo-European root is qel, as in Latin celsus, high, columna, column, English
- the pike (Wh.)?
- the calf of the leg, so Irish,
Early Irish calpda, bonus pes (Corm.),
colpa, tibia; from the Norse kálfi, whence also English calf.
- principal set to interest, Scottish
calpa, dath-duty payable to
the landlord, from Norse kaup, stipulation, pay.
- hardness on the skin (
H.S.D.; cathlum in
Latin callum, callus. It is not the obsolete caladh, hard,
Early Irish calad, Welsh caled,
Old Breton calat, *kaleto-, root kal, hard;
Gothic hallus, stone, Norse helle, hallr;
Sanskrit çilâ, stone.
- crooked, one-eyed, Irish cam,
Old Irish camm, Welsh cam, Breton kam,
Gaulish cambo-, root kemb, wind;
Greek kómbos, a band, bond; Lithuanian
kinge@?, door-bar. It has been refered to the root of Greek
@Gskambós, crooked (se
ceum), and to Latin camera, whence English
chamber. Hence camag, club, camas, bay.
- hoow above the eye, Irish camóg-ara, "the bend
of the ara",
aire, Gaelic arach, tempus;
- quarrelsome disputation (M`D.):
- talkative; *com-ag-ach, root
- a camel, Irish camhall,
Early Irish camail, Welsh camyll; from Latin
- a hollow plain, Irish cabhán (County Cavan); from the
- break of day, twilight, Irish camhaoir;
- a curl:
- a camp, Irish,
Middle Irish campa; from the English
- vexation, grief; from Scottish cummar, English cumber.
- say, sing, Irish canaim,
Old Irish canim, Welsh
cana, sing. Breton kana;
Latin cano, sing;
@Gkanázw; English hen.
- porpoise, young whale, Irish cana (
O'R.), cána (
Middle Irish cana (do.); from Latin canis?
- mountain down, cotton Irish canach,
Old Irish canach, lanugo;
@Gknekós, yellow; Sanskrit ka@-ncanas, golden, a
plant; *qonak-. Stokes refers it to *casnaka, Latin cânus,
white (*casno-), Anglo-Saxon hasu, grey, English hare.
- language, Irish cánamhuin. Seemingly a long-vowel form
of the root qan, cry.
- a cannon; from the English
- a canister; from the English
- fret; from Scottish canker, fret, English canker.
- trouble, vexation; from Scottish cangle.
- a can, so Irish,
Early Irish cann; from English
- pretty, kind; *cas-no-, root, qas, Latin ca@-nus, white (casnus),
Anglo-Saxon hasu, grey, English haze? Or it may be allied to
Latin candidus, white, Sanskrit cand, shine.
- articulate music, chanting, Irish cantaireachd, singing,
cántaire, a singer; from Latin cantor, cano, I sing.
- wrangling, grumbling, muttering, Irish cannrán; from
- grief, weeping (
M`L.), Irish cantlamh:
- a clod, a bite, Irish caob, clod,
Middle Irish coep,
Early Irish caip, cáep,
Old Irish caebb oo, jecur.
- empty (as a nut), blind, so Irish,
Old Irish caech, Welsh coeg, foolish,
Cornish cuic, *kaiko-s; Latin caecus; Gothic haihs, one-eyed.
- a streamlet; from caoth, blind?
- change, die, caochladh, a change, Irish caochluighim,
Old Irish caoimchláim cóem-chlóim: imchloud,
for co-imm-clóim; from clóim, muto:
See claoidh. The aspiration
of the mn of imb is unusual, but the history of the word
is also unusual, for it actually appears as claemchlód in Early Irish
oftener than once, and Irish claochlódh, claochladh.
- caod Chaluim-chille
- St John's wort (Sh.):
- wink; apparently from English cock (the eye). Cf. Norse
kaga, keek; Scottish keek; Shet. caog, peep slily.
- fifty, so Irish,
Old Irish cóica(t), *qenqekont; Latin quinquaginta;
- lamentation, Irish caoi, caoidh,
Early Irish cói, cái, inf. to cíim,
ploro, *keiô, root qei, which appears
in caoin, q.v., and in
English whine, whisper, etc.
Bezzenberger suggests *keipô, and
compares Lithuanian szëptis, grimace, Church Slavonic o-sipna@?ti,
A former derivation of Stokes' is repeated by Rhys (Manx.Pray.
@+2, 26): *qesi, root qes as in Latin questus.
- a twig or osier for wicker,
Middle Irish cóelach; from
- a bedfellow (Sh.), Irish caoimhthech,
Early Irish com-aithech,
Also caomhach, friend, bedfellow.
The latter seems from, or influenced by, caomh.
- kindness. This word is supposed by folk etymology
to be from
caomh, kind, whereas it is really allied to
coibnes, affionitas, *co-ven-estu-, root ven
of fine, q.v.
- kind, mild, so Irish,
càin, kind, beautiful Welsh cain?:
*koini-, root koi, kei of
caomh, q.v. Stokes gives base as
kaini-, and Bezzenberger compares
@Gkaínusqai, excel, Church Slavonic
sina@?ti, gleam forth. If the base idea were "beauty", English
shine might be compared.
- the exterior surface of cloth, right side, rind, sward; from
caoin, gentle, polished?
- weep, so Irish,
Old Irish cóinim, cáinim,
Old Welsh cuinhaunt,
deflebunt, Breton couen, queiniff, *koiniô;
qein, qîn; English whine,
Norse hvína, whirr;
- dry, make dry (as hay by the sun), caoin, seasoned;
from the adj. caoin?
- a blaze, stream of sparks, a coal, Irish
Early Irish cáer, *kairo,
English hoar (*kairo-), Teutonic root hai in Norse heið,
Old High German hei, heat, English heat; Sanskrit kêtus, light.
More near are
@Gkíris (lamp, Hes.), Sanskrit kirán@.a, a ray,
clear, has been also suggested. caoran, a peat ember.
- a plaintive song; also caoi-ràn,
moaning (H.S.D.). The
root word is caoidh;
possibly ràn, roar, forms the latter part.
- a drop of sheep or goats' dung, a drop or globule; cf.
Irish caoirín, a little berry, little sheep,
sheep. The two ideas seem confused in Gaelic. In Argyle,
gaoirnean; (Arg. ao here is northern ao). From skar, sharn?
- slender, so Irish,
Old Irish cóil, Welsh, Cornish cul,
Old Breton culed, macies,
*koilo-; Lettic káils, naked; Latin caelebs, single?
hollow? Hence caol; caolas, a firth or Kyle.
- gut, intesting, Irish caolán,
Early Irish coelán,
Old Welsh coilion, exta;
- tender, kind, so Irish,
Early Irish coem,
Old Irish cóim, Welsh cu,
cum, Breton cuff, cun, debonnaire, *koimo-, root kei, lie; Greek
@Gkoimáw, put to rest,
@Gke@nimai, lie; Gothic háims, a village, Anglo-Saxon
hám. English home. The idea is "restful".
- bedfellow, friend, Irish caomthach, friend;
and cf. Irish caomhaighim, I protect, cherish, from
- spare, save, caomhnadh, sparing, Irish caoimhnaim,
preserve, keep, protect, caomhaighim, caomhnuighim, preserve.
The last form seems the most original, if we refer the root to
Old Irish anich, protegit, aingim, I protect (a-nak), root nak and
nank, as in
thig, etc. The form nak is more particularly
allied to Sanskrit náçati, reach,
Lithuanian neszù, draw. The Gaelic
verb may have been *com-anich-. It is possible to derive it
caomh with caomhuin as an inf. form which usurped the
place of the present stem.
- strife, tumult, Irish caonnóg, strife, a next of wild bees:
*cais-no-, root kais, kai, heat, English heat,
- berry of the rowan, a mountain berry, Irish caor,
Old Irish cáer,
bacca, Welsh cair, berries, ceirion, berry *kairâ.
It is seemingly
the same word as caoir,
blaze, the idea arising probably from
the red rowan berries.
- a sheep, Irish caora, g. caorach,
Old Irish câer, *cairax, from
*ka(p)erax, alliet to Latin caper, a goat,
@Gkápros, a boar,
English heifer. Cf. Welsh caeriwrch, roebuck.
- the rowan tree, Irish caorthann,
Early Irish caerthann, Welsh
cerddin, Breton kerzin, *cairo-tann, from
caor, berry, and *tann,
tree, Breton tann, oak, Cornish glas-tannen. The connection with
Old High German tanna, fir, oak,
Middle High German
German tanne, fir,
tan, tanner (Greek
@Gqámnos, bush?) is doubtful; it would
necessitate the idea of borrowing, or that the Celtic word was
dann. Ogam Maqui Cairatini, McCaorthainn. Rhys says
Welsh is borrowed from Gadelic (C.F.L. 292).
- a capl from the English cap.
- drunken riotousness (Dial.); from Latin *crâpula.
- a horse, mare (more commonly), so Irish,
Early Irish capall, Breton
caval; from Latin capallus, whence
English cavalry, etc., caple (Middle English
capil, from Celt.) Norse kapall, nag, seems borrowed
from Gaelic. The Welsh is ceffyl, with remarkable vocalisation.
- turn, twist, Irish
Old Irish curu,
gyros, Welsh cor-wynt, turbo,
Middle Breton coruent, *kuro-; Latin curvus;
- friendly, related to, Irish cára(d), a friend.
See caraid for the
- condition, usage; from
- move, stir, Irish corruighim, from
corrach, unsteady. The
Gaelic confuses this with
- a friend, so Irish,
Old Irish cara, g. carat, *karant-;
Old Irish verb
carim, caraim, I love, Welsh caraf, amo, Breton quaret, amare, Gaulish
carantus, Caractacus, etc.;
Latin cârus, dear, English charity, etc.;
Gothic hôrs, meretrix.
- a pair, couple, Irish córaid,
Early Irish córait:
- refuse of threshed barley, Irish carra, bran;
- catechism; from Scottish carritch, a corruption of catechise.
- contest, confusion (
- condition, treatment:
- compulsory labour, cairiste,
- a chariot, so Irish,
Old Irish carpat, Welsh cerbyd,
Old Breton cerpit,
Gaulish carpentoracte, Carbantia, *karbanto-; Latin corbis, a
basket; Norse hrip, pannier for peats on horse-back. Latin
carpentum (English carpenter, etc.), seems borrowed from Gaulish.
The root idea is "wicker", referring to the basket character
of the body of these chariots.
- jaw, jaw-bone, so Irish, Welsh car yr ên (car of the mouth), Breton
karvan. The idea is "mouth chariot", from the resemblance
between the lower jaw and the old wicker chariots. Loth
cfs. Welsh carfan, beam, rail, row.
- engrave, carve; from the English.
- a particular kind of ship or boat (Islay); from Norse
karfi, a galley for the fiords.
- carraway-seed; from the English.
- a carp, Irish carbhán, Manx, caroo; from Norse karfi,
- a prison, sewer in a cow-house, Irish carcar, prison,
carcair (do.); from Latin carcer, prison, barrier. cacair in
- a carcase; from the English.
- card wool, Irish cardaighim; from the English card.
- a cargo, load; from the English.
- Lent, torment, Irish Corghas,
Middle Irish corgus, Welsh garawys;
from Latin quadragessima.
- a lock of wool
carla, a wool-card (Sh. Coneys
for Irish); *card-la-, from card of English For phonetics, cf.
- excellence, Irish carlamh, excellent, *co-er-lam-, erlam,
clever, *air-lam? For lam,
- heap of stones, cairn, Irish carn,
Early Irish, Welsh carn, Breton karn,
*kar-no-, root kar, be hard;
@Gkranaós, rock (
further English hard, harsh.
- a horning. The Gaelic seems a confusion between
English horn, put to the horn, and
M`F. gives àir chàrn
for "outlawed", càrn-eaglais, excommunication.
- a sledge, cart, peat cart, Irish
carr, dray, waggon,
carr, vehiculum (gl.), Gaulish
chariot, career, carry,
cargo, charge); from Celt. karso-; Latin
currus (quors-), from qr@.s; English horse, hurry.
- red; from English carnation.
- (1) a she-terrier, (2) a small fish found in stony shores at
ebb-tide. The first meaning from cárn, cairn. Terriers were
used for cairn hunting.
- the flesh of the seal and whale (Heb.; Carmichael); founded
on obsolete carn, flesh?
- the itch, mange, superficial roughness, Irish
Middle Irish carrach, *karsâko-, from kars, be rough, hard;
(*kors-ta-); further root kar, to be hard, rough. For càrr,
rocky shelf, Irish
- a frog-fish, called "cobler", Irish carrachán, the rock
fish called cobler (Coneys). From
carr, a rock. Also the
word means "the wild liquorice root" -
- a pillar stone, Irish carrthadh, cartha,
Early Irish corthe. The
root, despite the vocalic difficulty caused by the Early Irish form,
is likely the same as in
carraig; yet cf. kor of
- conflict; from the root kars in
- rock, so Irish,
Old Irish carric, Welsh careg,
Old Welsh carrecc, Breton
karrek, *karsekki- (so Rhys, R.C.@+17 102, who thinks Welsh
borrowed), from root kars, hard, rough; Norwegian, herren,
hard, stiff, harren, hard, English harsh, hard (root kar).
- wild liquorice, wood pease, Irish carra-mhilis. The
name is explained as "knots of honey", the carra being the
càrr, and meille the gen.
Hence Scottish carmele, etc.
- spurrey, spergula arvensis, Irish carrán, scurvy grass. From
the root kars
carran also means a "shrimp", and is
of the same origin.
- the conger;
See carran above.
- hoarseness, wheezing, Irish carsán; from the root kars, be
@Gkórnza, catarrh, rotz.
- a quart, Irish cárt; from the English quart, Latin quartus.
- a small brown insect that eats into the flesh, Irish cartán, a
small brown insect that eats into the flesh, a crab. A
Gadelicised form of partan, q.v.
- affectionate, charitable, Irish carthannach; from Latin
- dwell apart as in a cave, separate
caruinnean, refuse of threshed corn, caruinnich, winnow.
Possibly from the root kar, separate, a form of the root of
- beside, near. This is the dat.pl. of
- foot, leg, Irish
Old Irish coss, Welsh coes, *koksâ; Latin coxa, hip;
Middle High German hahse, bend of the knee;
Sanskrit kákshas, armpit.
- steep, sudden, Irish
casach, an ascent,
Middle Irish cass, rapid, *kasto-;
- curled, Irish,
cas, curly, casaim, flecto; &qasto-,
Norse haddr (has-da-), hair, English hair; Lithuanian kasa, hair-plait,
Church Slavonic kosa, hair (Kluge). Stokes compares it with Latin
quasillum, a basket, root quas.
- gnash the teeth, Irish cais, hate, Welsh câs, hate,
English hate, German hass, Gothic hatis. Of the same ultimate origin
cas, sudden (Strachan).
- fire (as a stone) (Suth.), seemingly founded on English cast.
Cf. casadh ar a chéile = met (Irish).
- a difficulty, Irish cás; from Latin casus (English case).
- fishing tackle (part attached to hook): from
- a cough, Irish casachdach, Welsh pâs, peswch, Breton pas,
*qasto-; English host, Anglo-Saxon hvósta, German husten;
Sanskrit kâsate, coughs.
- cassock, Irish casóg; from the English The Early Irish word is
casal, from Latin casula.
- a complaint, accusation, Irish casoid,
Old Irish cossóit. The
word is a compound, beginning with con, and seemingly of
the same origin as faosaid, q.v.
Stokes thinks that the word
is borrowed from the Latin causatio; this is not likely, however.
Root sen, Welsh cynhenn, quarrel.
- sea drift, Irish casair, a shower,
Early Irish casair, hail, Welsh cesair
(do.), Breton kazerc'h (do.), *kassri-, *kad-tri-; from
root cad as
in Latin cado, fall. The Irish and
Gaelic (?) casáir, phosphorescence,
seems to be the same word.
- a path, Irish casán; from
- a rafter, roof-tree; from
- slay, butcher, so Irish,
Old Irish coscar, victory, destruction;
- chips of wood (Arms.),
Irish casnaidh; *co-+
- parallel (Sh.), Irish cospanach
- a chestnut; from Latin castanea, through Middle English castane,
- a measure for butter (quarter stone); from the English castor.
- the straw on a kiln below the grain (Arms., not
- a cat, so Irish,
Early Irish catt, Welsh
cath, Cornish kat, Breton kaz, Gaulish
Cattos; Latin catta, perhaps also catulus; English cat, German katze,
etc. It is a word of doubtful origin; possibly, however,
Celtic, and applied first to the wild cat, then to the tame
Egyptian cat introduced in the early centuries of the Christian
- sheep-cot, pen; from English
- taming, càtadh (M`F.); cf. tataich.
- potatoe cellar (Dialectic);
- refuse at carding of wool, Irish cadás, cotton, scraping of
linen rags; from English caddis.
See further under caiteas.
- battle, Irish,
Old Irish cath, Welsh cad,
Old High German hadu-, fight, Anglo-Saxon heaðo-, German hader, contention;
Sanskrit çatru, enemy;
- chaff, husks of corn, Irish,
Old Irish cáith, Welsh codem, a bag, husk,
pod (?), *kûti-, root kât, kat, as in
caith, spend, cast.
- provoking, accusing, fighting, Irish cathaighim; from
- snow-drift, Irish cáthadh, snow-drift, sea-drift; cf. Middle Irish
cúa, gen. cúadh, Welsh cawod,
Old Cornish cowes, nimbus, Breton kaouad,
*kavat (Stokes); allied to English shower. It is possible to
refer the Gaelic word to the root of
- a city, Irish,
Early Irish cathair,
Old Irish cathir *kastrex,
Welsh caer, Breton kaer, *kastro-; Latin castrum, fort (Stokes).
The root seems to be
cat, cats; the phonetics are the same as in
piuthar, for the final part of the word.
- a chair, Irish cathaoir,
Early Irish catháir, Welsh cadair, Breton kador;
from Latin cathedra, whence also, through Greek, English chair.
- a wild goose with black bill (Heb.);
- a web (M`D.):
- mossy ground;
- a corn
(Sh.; not in
H.S.D.); formed on Latin callum.
Middle Irish ceó, milk; cf. Breton koavenn, which suggests
a form keivo- (cf.
from gleivo-), root kei, skei, shade, cover,
@Gskiá, shadow, German schemen (do.)? The Breton koavenn
has been refered to *co+hufen, Welsh hufen, cream. Cf.
- the earth, used only in the phrase an cruinne cé, the (round)
Early Irish cé, for bith ché, on this earth.
The cé is
supposed to be for "this", from the pronomial kei, Greek
@Gkei@nnos, he, Latin ce, cis, English he.
The root kei, go, move (Latin
@Gkíw), has also been suggested.
- spouse (Carm.), Irish
- the iron part of a spade or other delving instrument;
- a fine breeze (Heb.):
- (Carm.), sky, (Prov.) ci'ar:
- an interjection of dislike;
- dirty, mean, obstreperous (Carm.), Irish ceachair, dirt,
Middle Irish cecharda, *kekari-; from kek, the
e form of the root
kak seen in
- digging, Irish ceachlaim,
Old Irish ro-cechladatar, suffoderunt,
*ce-clad-, a reduplicated or perfect form of the root clad of Gaelic
- permission, so Irish,
Old Irish cet, *ces-do-; Latin ce@-do, I yield (for
- bunch of wool, Irish ceadach, cloth, coarse cloth, Welsh cadach,
clout. Rhys regards Welsh as borrowed from Irish For all, cf.
- the part of the plough on which the share is fixed. Also
ceidhe. Both words are used for English quay.
- a frivolous person (Dialectic):
- a trade,
Early Irish cerd;
- stupor, forgetfulness, Irish ceal, forgetfulness; from the root
ceil, conceal. Cf. Early Irish cel, death. ceal, end (
- same, similar hue (Carm.):
- the fire-place of a kiln:
- eat (Kirk), Irish cealaim; root qel as in Latin colo?
- a virago (Badenoch):
- guile, treachery, so Irish,
Early Irish celg, *kelgâ; Armenian ke??ch??,
hypocrisy. The further root is qel of
- g. cille, a church, so Irish,
Early Irish cell; from Latin cella, a cell,
a hermit's cell especially, whence the Gadelic use. Hence
cealloir, superior of a cell, and the name Mackellar. "A
retired spot" (Hend.).
- broad-cloth, Irish cealtair, clothes,
Early Irish celtar, celt, raiment;
from qel, cover, as
in ceil, q.v.
- whither, for c'iona, c'ionadh? Cf. Irish cá h-ionad.
- mild, kind, so Irish; from *cen, as in
cion, ++cean, love,
- a tie, binding, so Irish,
Early Irish cengal, Welsh cengl; from Latin
cingulum, vb. cingo, I bind, English cincture.
- head, so Irish,
Old Irish cend, cenn, Welsh, Breton penn, Gaul, Penno-,
*qenno. Perhaps for qen-no-, root qen (labialised), begin,
Church Slavonic koni, beginning, as in
ceud, first. The difficulty is
that the other labialising languages and the Britonic branch
otherwise show no trace of labialisation for qen. Windisch,
followed by Brugmann, suggested a stem kvindo-, Indo-European root
kvi, Sanskrit çvi, swell,
@GPíndos, Pindus Mount; but the root
vowel is not
i, even granting the possible labialisation of kvi,
which does not really take place in Greek. Hence ceannag,
a bottle of hay, ceannaich, buy (="heading" or reckoning
by the head; cf. Dial. ceann, sum up), ceannaich, head-wind
Hend.), ceannas, vaunting (
- a purchasing, so Irish,
Early Irish cennaigim, I buy,
cennige, lixa, caingen, negotium.
- rebellion, turbulence, so Irish; *ceann+arc; for root
For meaning cf. English headstrong, Welsh
- commander, chief, Irish ceannárd, arrogant, commanding,
àrd; Middle kinnoort, Irish ceannphort,
commander, authority, head post or city:
- (Cam.), a brindle or horse's head-gear, Irish
rach (root rig),
- subdue, tame, Irish ceannsaighim; from ceannas, superiority,
ceann and the abst. termination
Similarly ceannsal, rule.
- a block, shoemaker's last, so Irish,
Early Irish cepp, Welsh cyff, Breton kef;
from Latin cippus.
- catch, stop. This word seems borrowed from the Scottish kep, of
like meaning, a bye-form of English keep. The Irish
bind, stop (?), seems from ceap above.
- a tillage plot, Irish ceapach. This Stokes refers to a
Celtic keppo-, garden, root kep, ka@-, Latin campus,
garden, German hube, piece of land. Satisfactory though the
meaning be, the derivation is doubtful as involving the preservation
of p, even though flanked by a second p (or -nó,
i.e. kep-nó-, which is still more doubtful). Hence the common
place name .
- a verse, an impromptu verse, carelessly sung verse,
cepóc, a chorus song: a rare word in Irish, and said to be Scottish
Gaelic for Irish aidbsi, great chorus. From
ceap, catch? cf.
English catch, a chorus verse. Zimmer suggests that it stands
Ce Póc, "kiss here", (?) sung by the girls as a refrain at
- bread covered with butter, etc. Irish ceapaire; from
a block. Cf. ceapag, a wheel-barrow wheel.
- piece, article of clothing, so Irish,
Early Irish cerp, cutting, cerbaim;
@Gkárfos, twig, English shrub; *(s)ker, cut,
divide. Cf. Welsh carp, rag, cerpyn.
Bezzenberger cfs. Middle High German
herb, asper. St. now skerb, English sharp.
- a hen, so Irish,
Middle Irish cerc, *cercâ; from Indo-European qerqo, to sound,
hence "a noise-making bird";
@Gkérkos, a cock,
fowl; Latin querquedula, a teal,
Old Prus. kerko, a diver; Sanskrit
kr@.ka-vâkus, a cock.
- a hoop, so Irish; from Late Latin circulus, circullus, a hoop,
from circulus, a circle.
- a craftsman, Irish céard,
Early Irish cerd, Welsh cerdd, art; Latin cerdo,
- a smithy, Irish céardcha,
Old Irish cerddchae; from cerd+cae,
the latter word cae meaning a house in Irish, a Celtic kaio-n,
allied to English home.
- scarabæbus, dung-beetle, hornet (H.S.D. for form),
cearnabhan. cearr-dubhan (
"wrong-sided little black one".
- tidy (Arms.); cearmanaich, make tidy (Perth):