MacBain's Dictionary - Section 31
- did, Irish
Old Irish rigni, fecit; from
ro and gni of
See also gnìomh.
- appearance, form, Irish riochd,
Old Irish richt, Welsh rhith: *riktu-,
*r@.ktu- (?); for root,
See that of dorch.
- kind of sea-gull (Lewis); Norse rytr, sea-gull.
- the reef of a sail; from the English
- brimstone (Nunro's Greek):
- fine, costly, handsome, Irish rímheighe, finery, delicateness:
*rîmo-, "measured"; root rîm
- a mackerel: "streaked, spotted", from reann,
- mangle, tear (H.S.D.);
founded on English rip.
- weakness in the back (Suth); Scottish ripples.
- really, in earnest, Irish ríreadh, da ríreadh or
ríribh, revera; from *ro-fhìr, very true?
- a surface plough, used in the Hebrides, drawn by one
horse and having a sickle-like coulter, Scottish ristle; from the
Norse ristill, ploughshare, from rísta, cut.
- rìs, a rithisd, etc.,
again, Irish arís,
Old Irish arithissi,
afrithissi, rursus. Ascoli suggests *frith-éisse, from
vestigium (see déis).
Others have derived it from *ar-fithis,
Old Irish fithíssi, absidas, fithis, a circle, orbit. The
a at the
beginning is for ar-: *ar-frithissi, that is,
air, by, on, q.v.
The root may well be sta, stand, reduplicated to *sistio-:
thus *frith(sh)issi-, "resistere, backness".
- very, Irish ró,
Old Irish ro-, Welsh rhy-, Breton re,
Old Breton ro-, ru-, Gaulish
ro- (Ro-smerta, Ro-danos, etc.): *ro-, *pro-, which is both a
verbal and an intensive particle; Latin pro;
English fore, for; Sanskrit pra, before.
- coarse hair; founded on English rope.
- a robber; from the English The Irish has robail for "rob".
- notification, information about anything lost; cf. robhadh
for root, the old form of rabhadh, q.v.
- a runt; English rout?
- a rock; from the English roc, a tempest covered rock (Heb.),
so M`K., who derives from Norse rok.
- a wrinkle, crease, Irish rocán,
rug; from the Norse hrukka,
wrinkle, fold, English ruck, fold (Thurneysen).
- a hoarse voice; founded on the Norse hrókr, rook, croaker,
ròcas, crow, Norse hrókr, rook. Welsh has rhoch, grunt,
groan, Breton roc'ha, which Stokes refers to *rokka,
- tear, corrugate; in the latter sense, it is from
and, probably, the first meaning is of the same origin. See,
- a crow; from Norse hrókr,
Middle English rook, Anglo-Saxon hr/oc.
- a cough, retching (Dial.);
- a way, road, Irish ród,
Early Irish ród; from Anglo-Saxon rád,
rode, now road.
- a quantity of sea-weed cast on the shore; cf. Irish ród, a cast,
Early Irish rout.
- a rood (of land or mason-work); from the English
- sea-weed growth on timber under water; cf. ròd,
- ruddy, darkish,
Middle Irish rotaide: *rud-do-, root
of ruadh, q.v.
- a rogue; from the English
- a choice, Irish rogha, g. roghan,
Early Irish rogain, n.pl.,
rogy: *ro-gu, root
taghadh, q.v. Stokes gives the
stem as *rogôn and the root as rog, which (Bez.Beit.@+18) he
correlates with Latin rogo, ask. Bez. suggests Lithuanian rogáuti, to
- filth, sqalid beard, filth about the mouth; cf.
- a sumptuous but unrefined feast; seemingly founded on the
Scottish rouch as applied to a feast - "plentiful but rough and
- tear (
Arms. have roic);
- bog myrtle, Irish rideog (O'R.),
Middle Irish raidleog, darnel, raideog,
bogmyrtle (St.): *raddi. Cf.
- a race before a leap, a bounce or spring: *raddi-, *raz-di-,
ras, as in English race?
- snout of a sow; really the "rolled" up part of the snout,
and so possibly from English roll.
- a confused joy, roille, a fawning or too cordial reception;
cf. Irish róthoil, exceeding pleasure, from
- before, Irish roimh,
Old Irish rem-: *(p)r@.mo- (Stokes), root per,
ro (= pro); in form, nearest allied to English from, Gothic
fruma, Lithuanian pirm, before. In the pronominal compounds,
where s begins the pronoun, the m and s develop an intermediate
p coincident with the eclipse of the s: rompa = *rom-p-shu,
where su = sôs (see -sa).
- (also ròinn, ròinneag), Irish róine, róinne, a
especially a horse hair, Welsh rhawn, coarse long hair, Cornish ruen,
Breton reun, a hair, bristle, Sanskrit roman, hair, etc:
*râni-; cf. Irish
ruain, hair of tail of cow or horse, ruainne, a hair.
- division, share, Irish roinn,
Middle Irish roinded, divided: *ranni-,
an i stem from
- rosin; from the Scottish roset, English rosin.
- a small potato (M`D.):
- surge of a wave, the impetus of a boat, an assault, boasting;
from the Scottish roust, strong tide or current, Norse röst, a
stream or current in the sea. In the sense of "boast", it is
from Scottish rouse, roose, Norse rausan, boasting.
- a romance, rhodomontade; from ro, very, and
sgeul, a tale, q.v.
- roast, Irish rósdaim, Welsh rhostio; from the English roast,
Old High German rôst, craticula.
- a wheel, pulley, Irish roithleán; from
- a roll, volume, Irish rolla; from Middle English rolle,
Old French rolle,
Latin rotula; now English roll.
- a romance, exaggeration; cf. Scottish, English rigmarole.
- hairy, rough:
- meal and whisky (Sutherland):
- wild talk, raving, rigmarole (Dial.); from English row? from
Roman? Cf. Welsh rhamant, romance, Irish ramàs, romance.
- the seal, Irish rón,
Old Irish rón (before 900), Welsh moelron: *râno-;
Lettic rohns, seal
(W.Meyer, Zeit.@+28 119).
Stokes holds rón
as an old borrow from Anglo-Saxon hron or hrón,
hrán, whale, while
the Lithuanian rùinis, Lettic rõnis, seal,
must be from Teutonic.
Zimmer suggests Norse hreinn, reindeer, Anglo-Saxon hrán. Cf.
names Rónán, Rónóc, Mac Ronchon.
- a joining spar, rung, boat-rib, rongas, rungas (Dial.), Irish
runga; from Middle English ronge, rung of a ladder, runge, Anglo-Saxon
hrung; now English rung; Norse röng, main rafter, pole. The
reang and rang or rangan, "boat-rib", are from the
- the vital spark, life:
- a lounger;
- a lean person; from rong, rung: "like a ladder".
The Scottish has rung in this sense: "an ugly, big-boned animal
- a slaver, a spittle,
Early Irish ronna, running of the nose: *runno-;
cf. English run.
- a rope, Irish rópa; from Middle English rope, roop, Anglo-Saxon ráp; now
- slovenly, squalid, Irish rúpach, a young slut: *roub-tho-; cf.
- dealing extensively with a family in provisions, etc.;
- seed, ros lìn, flax seed (Armstrong's only use for it), Irish ros,
Middle Irish ros, genealogy,
Early Irish ross lín, flax seed
(Corm.), ros, genealogy, to which Strachan compares Gothic
frasts, for fra-s@?t-s, from pro-sto (Stokes), a child. A usual
word for seed is fras, which also means a "shower", but both
are ultimately from *verso, flow, whence
@Ga@'rscn, male. Dr. Cameron compared
(*pr@.so), English furze.
- a promontory, Irish
ros, promontory (North Ireland), wood
(South Ireland; its usual Irish meaning),
Early Irish ross, promontory,
wood; in the former sense from *pro-sto-s, "standing
out before", root sta, stand, Latin sto, English stand, etc.;
especially Sanskrit prastha, plateau. In the sense of "wood",
is generally regarded as the same word as
explained as "promontorium nemorosum", with which is
compared Welsh rhos, a moor, waste, coarse highland, Breton
- rose, Irish rósa,
Middle Irish rós, Welsh rhosyn; from the Middle English rose,
Anglo-Saxon róse, from Latin ro@usa. The word ròs has also the metaphoric
meaning of "erysipelas".
- knowledge (Carm.):
- mischance, evil spell: *pro-stanto-, "standing before,
obstruction", root sta. Cf.
- an eye, eyelid, Irish rosg,
Old Irish rosc, oculus: *rog-sko-, root
reg, rog, see, Irish réil, clear (*regli-);
Lithuanian regiù, I
- aincitement (to battle), war ode, Irish
Early Irish rosc: *ro-sqo-,
root seq, say, as in
- a belch, bursting as of waves (H.S.D., Dial.); from French rot.
- horse radish; from Scottish rotcoll.
- a rush at starting, a running:
- rough weather, rótach? (Lewis); Norse róta, storm.
- a hand rattle to frighten cattle:
- a circle of flith on one's clothes (M`A. for Islay), rotair, a
- cutting, dividing; from Scottish
rot, lines drawn on the ground
to show the work to be done, to furrow, rut; cf. English rut.
- a ship's wake; cf. English rut, route, Latin ruptâ.
- a wheel, Irish,
Old Irish roth, Welsh rhod (f.), Breton rod: *roto-, root
rot; Latin rota, wheel; German rad; Latin rátas,
Sanskrit ráthas, waggon. Same root
as ruith, q.v. Hence
rotha, a roll (of tobacco), rothaich, roll thou, swathe.
- a screw or vice:
- red, ruddy, Irish ruadh,
Early Irish rúad, Welsh rhudd, Cornish
ruz: *roudo-; Latin rûfus, rûber;
@Ge@'ruqrós; Gothic rauþs.
Anglo-Saxon réad, English red (Scottish reid, Reid);
Lithuanian raudà, red colour.
- pursue, ruaig, flight, Irish ruaig (n.),
Early Irish ruaic: *rounko-,
rouk, root rou, Latin ruo, rush, fall.
- a flush of anger on the face, Irish ruaim, ruamnadh, reddening:
*roud-s-men, from *roud of
- hale and jolly though old (M`A. for Islay):
- rumble (M`A.); from the English
- a dry pool, muddy water (Sh.), Irish ruaimle. In Gaelic the
word means also the same as
ruaim above, whence indeed
ruaimle as "muddy pool" may also be. Cf. Scottish drumblie.
- strong, active,
Middle Irish ruamach,
Early Irish rúamna (?):
*rous-men-; Latin ruo, rush.
- a rhapsody (M`A.):
- dig, delve, Irish rómhairim, róghmhar, digging,
ruamor; root rou, reu, rû, dig; Latin ruo, dig, râta, minerals;
Lithuanian ráuti, dig up.
- rigmarole (M`A.):
- violent onset, skirmish, spell, so Irish,
Early Irish rúathar, Welsh
rhuthr, impetus, insultus: *routro-, root rou, to rush on;
Latin ruo, rush.
- rub; from the English
- a tumult, rumbling (M`A.); formed on English rumble.
M`A.), rùc, rùcan (
M`E., etc.), a rick of hay;
from Scottish ruck, English rick, ruck, Norse hraukr, heap.
- jostling kind of fondness:
- the throat, wheezing; cf. Scottish roulk (= rouk),
hoarse, French rauque, hoarse, from Latin raucus.
- a grunt, belch, rumbling noise; from Latin ructo, belch,
erûgere, epit out, Lithuanian rúgiu, belch. Cf. Scottish ruck, belch.
- a thing, Dial. raod (Arg., Arran), rudach (Arran raodach),
hospitable, Irish rud (g. roda), raod,
Old Irish rét,
g. réto: *rentu-s;
Sanskrit rátna, property, goods; also root râ of
- a knuckle, a tendon: *runto-:
- a promontory, Irish rubha,
Early Irish rube: *pro-bio-, "being
before"; from root
bu of the verb "to be";
- a blush,
Early Irish ruidiud; from root
rud, a short form of
- (Suth.), a crab, partan:
- thrift (M`A.):
- a small stack of corn (
See rùthan, peat
heap, with which and with
rùcan this form and meaning are
- searching, groping, Irish rúdhrach, a darkening:
- wrinkle, Irish rug; from Norse hrukka, a wrinkle, fold, English
ruck, a crease.
- caught, Irish
ruc, rucc, tulit,
Old Irish rouic: *ro+ucc-,
where ucc = *ud-gos-a, root ges, carry, Latin gero, gestum.
- rough cloth (M`A.); from English
Middle English ruggi, hairy,
- a greedy grasping of anything; from Scottish rook, deprive of,
rookit, cleared out.
- a long neck (H.S.D.):
- a drunkard (
H.S.D. says Dial.,
M`A. says N.); from the
English For phonetics, cf.
- a blush;
rudha, but rucce (
- undesirable fondness (M`D.):
- a pimple: *rud-ki-, from
rud, roud, red, as in
- (Arg.), a dance;
- a yarn reel; from Middle English reel, hréol, Anglo-Saxon hréol.
- rolling; from
- a glutton, riotous liver; from English rioter.
- merry, frisky, Irish ruidéiseach, from ruidéis, a sporting
- half castrated ram; from English rig, ridgeling.
- reach, arrive at,
Old Irish riccim, riccu; from
ro and iccim, for
See thig. Hence gu ruig, as far as,
Old Gaelic gonice (Book of Deer),
Early Irish corrici.
- an arm, forearm, Irish
Early Irish rig, forearm: *regit-, root
reg, stretch, Latin rego, etc.
- the outstretched part or base of a mountain, shealing
Early Irish rige, rigid, a reach, reaches; from the root reg,
stretch, as in the case of the foregoing words.
- reaching, arriving, Irish righim, I reach, inf.
Early Irish rigim, porrigo: *regô; Latin rego,
erigo, porrigo, I stretch;
@Go@'régw, stretch; further is English
- wool-roll ready to spin; from the same rroot as
- a point;
- a long stick or stake, an animal's tail, rump:
- a rinsing, rinser; from English rinse.
- a rash; formed from the English Cf. Lithuanian russus, root
Early Irish rutech: *rud-tiko-, from
rud, roud of
ruadh. Stokes (Rev.Celt.@+8 366) explained it as *rudidech,
but this would give Gaelic ruideach.
- run, Irish riothaim,
Old Irish rethim, perf. ráith, inf. rith
(d. riuth, Welsh rhedu, to run, rhed, race, Breton redek, Gaulish
petor-ritum, four wheeler: *retô; Lithuanian, Lettic ritù, I roll; Latin
rota, wheel, rotula, English roll, Latin rotundus, English round.
- a reel, dance, also righil, ruidhil: *retoli-, root ret, run,
wheel, as in
ruith; Latin rotula, little wheel, rotulare, revolve,
English roll. Hence English reel (Skeat). The borrowing may be,
however,, the other way, and English reel, dance, be the same as
reel, a spindle or bobbin. *roteli?
- a room, Irish rúm,
Middle Irish rúm, floor (O'Cl.); from the English
- a marsh:
- the tail, rump; from the Scottish rumple, English rump.
- intention, love, secret, Irish,
Old Irish rún, Welsh rhin: *rûnes-; Gothic,
Old High German, Norse rúnar, English runes;
@Ge@'reunáw, seek out;
root revo, search.
- search, turn over things, scrape, rùsladh,
moving things about (Perth); from English rustle; for ultimate
- a fleece, skin, husk, bark, Irish rusg,
Old Irish rúsc, cortex, Welsh
rhisg, cortex, Cornish rusc, cortex, Breton rusgenn, rusk, bark:
*rûsko-; whence French ruche, beehive (of bark),
Old French rusche,
rusque, Pied. rusca, bark. Stokes thinks the Celtic is
probably an old borrwo from the Teutonic - Middle High German rusche,
rush, English rush, rushes; but unlikely. The Cornish and Breton
vowel u does not tally with Gadelic û; this seems to imply
borrowing among the Celts themseles.
- a ram, ridglinng; from Norse hrútr, ram.
- rutting: from the English
- surly (
Carm.): rut, ram (
- the hor of a roebuck:
- desire (Carm.):
- (better rùghan), a peat heap (= dais);
from the Norse hrúgi, heap.
- quarrelsome, fighting
(H.S.D. marks it obsolete;
Irish rútharach (O'R.); from
- emphatic pronominal particle attached to personal
pronouns and to nouns preceded by the possessive pronouns:
mi-se, I myself, thu-sa, sibh-se,
i-se (she), e-san, iad-san;
mo cheann-sa, a cheann-san, his head. So also modern Irish,
save that esan is ésean:
-sa, -se (1st pers.), su, -so, pl.
-si (2nd pers.), -som, -sem (3rd pers. m. and n., sing., and pl.),
-si (3rd pers. f.). All are cases of the pronominal root
@Go@`, the (=
so); Anglo-Saxon se, the (m.), English she.
- a brawl, fight;
- Sabbath, Irish Sabóid,
Middle Irish sapoit; from Latin sabbatum,
whence English sabbath; from Hebrew shabbáth.
- sorrel, Irish
- ointment, salve; from Scottish saw, English salve.
- a saw, Irish sábh; from the English
- save, Manx sauail,
Irish sabhailim (sábhálaim,
Latin salvare, to save. Kuno Meyer says from English save.
- a barn, so Irish,
Middle Irish saball, Irish Latin zabulum; through
Brittonic from Latin stabulum, a stall, English stable. Cf. Middle Irish
stéferus = zephyr.
- a lie, fable (H.S.D., Dial.), straying, lounging; cf.
- sauce, Irish sabhsa; from the English
- a sausage; founded on the English word.
- a sack, Irish sac,
Early Irish sacc, Welsh sach; from Anglo-Saxon sacc, English
sack, Gothic sakkus, Latin saccus.
- a load, burden, Irish sacadh, pressing into a sack or bag, Low Latin
saccare (do.); from French
sac, pillage, the same as English
sack, plunder, all borrowed from saccus, a sack or bag.
- dust shaken from anything by beating, a smart blow, sadadh,
- aught (M`D.: Cha 'n' eil sad agam, I have naught):
- a priest, Irish sagart,
Old Irish sacart, sacardd; from Latin
sacerdos, whence English sacerdotal.
- shy, bashful, Irish soidialta, rude, ignorant;
from sodal, q.v.
- an upright beam, prow of a ship, a handle or the part of a
blade in the handle:
- the saith fish (Arg.); from Norse seiðr, the gadus
virens, now sei.
- hay; formed from the English hay by the influence of the
article (an t-hay becoming a supposed de-eclipsed say).
- sound of a falling body, a crash, noise (Badenoch Dial.
doidse, a dint):
- a corpulent little man:
- a bitch, Irish
Con., Lane, etc.), sagh, saighín
Middle Irish sogh, sodh,
sod, bitch, she-wolf:
- soldier, archer, Irish sáighdiur (do.),
Middle Irish saigdeoir,
sagittarius, Welsh sawdwr, soldier; from Middle English soudiour,
sougeour, Scottish sodger, now soldier, confused in Gadelic with an
early borrow from Latin sagittarius, archer.
- an arrow, so Irish,
Old Irish saiget, Welsh saeth, Cornish
saez; from Latin sagitta. For root
- a beam, Irish sail: *spali-, allied to German spalten, split, English
- a heel, Irish,
Old Irish sál, Welsh sawdl,
Breton seuzl: *sâtlâ. Ascoli
has lately revived the old derivatino from *stâ-tlô-,
stand; but st initial does not in native words become s in
- fat or fatness, Irish saill, fat, bacon, pickle: *saldi-; English
salt, etc.; Lithuanian saldùs, sweet.
See salann further.
- salt thou, Irish,
Old Irish saillim, condio, *saldio, salt: *salni-;
- a decoction, oak-bark decoction to staunch blood, a consumption
pectoral; founded on Middle English salfe, now salve?
- luxury, sensuality, Irish sáimhe, peace, luxury,
Early Irish sáim,
pleasant: *svadmi-; English sweet,
@Ge@`dús, etc. But cf.
- the trefoil clover (A.M`D.),
- a handsel, New Year's gift; from Scottish handsel,
hansell, i.e. hand-sellan, deliver.
- the back bone, joint of the neck or backbone, Irish saith,
joint of neck or backbone (
- also sàil, sàile, sea, Irish sáile,
Early Irish sál, sáile: *svâlos, root sval,
svel; Latin salum, sea; English swell (Stokes, who also refers
Breton c'hoalen, salt). Shräder equates Gadelic with
salt, the sea, and Latin salum, root sal.
- dirty, Irish, so
Old Irish salach, Welsh halawg, halog, Cornish halou,
Old Breton haloc, lugubri: *salâko-s (adj.), root sal, to
dirty; English sallom,
Old High German salo, dusky, dirty. sal, filth,
- salt, Irish,
Old Irish salann, Welsh halen, Cornish haloin, Breton halenn
(*salên): *salanno-s, salt; Latin sal;
@Ga@`ls, salt, sea; English
salt, German salz; Church Slavonic soli@u.
- a chalder; from Scottish chalder, English chalder, chaldron, from
Old French chaldron, a caldron.
- a psalm, Irish,
Old Irish salm, Welsh and Breton salm; from Latin
psalmus, English psalm.